According to the Principal Accounting Board (APB) Statement (1970: 132) stated that: Understanding asset or assets according to Experts
"Economic wealth of companies, including the delayed loading, assessed and recognized in accordance accepted accounting principles."
Furthermore, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) (1985) gives the definition of assets as follows:
"Asset is the possibility of economic benefits obtained or controlled in the future by certain institutions as a result of past transactions or events."
Based on these definitions above, it can be said that something is regarded as assets if in the future can be expected to provide a positive net cash inflow to the company.
Further classification of assets owned by the company consists of various kinds. In general, the classification of fixed assets consists of:
tangible fixed assets (Fixed Assets), and
Intangible fixed assets (Intangible Assets).
Tangible fixed assets include all the items owned by the company with the purpose to be used actively in the company's operations, and has a period of relatively permanent usability. Tangible fixed assets that have a limited period of usefulness must be depreciated over the period of usefulness, and are presented in the balance sheet at book value (acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation). Which termaduk in this asset class are buildings, machinery and factory equipment, furniture and office equipment, vehicles and transport equipment, work tools garage, natural resource assets. Medium tangible fixed assets that have an unlimited period of usefulness, are presented in the balance sheet at cost.
While intangible assets include the rights of preference (preferential) which are guaranteed by law, contracts, agreements and have a useful life in a relatively permanent.
Furthermore, according to Harnanto (1991: 357), for operating management investment (assets), covering the entire machinery and equipment and other plant equipmen as well as working capital to be managed or operated placed in the company's efforts to generate profits.
Based on the definition above shows that the operational point of view of investment, fixed assets is one of the important elements that should be the focus of attention for the company in its operations in relation to generate income / profit. Besides, for the purpose of maintenance conditions fixed assets both tangible and intangible fixed in productive conditions for companies required for depreciation and amortization as a process of allocation of the cost of fixed assets.